Cervix (Cervical Cancer, one of the most common cancer types in women, Gynecology, Obstetrics and IVF Specialist Assoc. Dr. Nermin Köşüş gives information about how to prevent cervical cancer… What is cervical cancer, its symptoms Prof. Dr. Köşüş gives the following information on the subject: Cervical cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women. It is common in developing or underdeveloped countries. The reason for this is that there are not enough screening tests in these countries, the socioeconomic level is low and sexually transmitted diseases are more common. Cervical cancer, which used to be mostly seen in women aged 50 years and older, is also seen in young people today.
HPV VIRUS AND CAUSE OF CANCER OF THE ORAL OF THE cervix
HPV so ‘human papillomavirus’ It is the most obvious factor causing cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in more than 99% of patients with cervical cancer. In other words, HPV is the most important cause of cervical cancer. The virus often causes no symptoms, and sometimes causes genital warts. Generally, a person with HPV does not know that they have it, but transmits it to others. This is how the virus, which is usually sexually transmitted, enters the lives of most women.
In most of the healthy women with good immunity, the virus is cleared from the body within 2-5 years. Since these women completely shed the virus, they become like women who have never been infected in terms of cancer risk. However, sometimes the virus cannot be eliminated from the body, settles in the body and has long-term negative effects. The virus is quite insidious, it may not show any symptoms for months. For this reason, it is also called silent infection. Regular screening tests are very important for early diagnosis and treatment, as most women have no symptoms.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CERVIX (CERVISE ORAL CANCER)?
What are the Symptoms of Cervical Cancer? How do symptoms occur?
Cervical cancer often has no symptoms in the early stages, but is detected by screening tests. The most common and earliest symptom after sexual intercourse in women with symptoms bleeding and intermediate bleeding. Women who start sexual intercourse at an early age, have more than one partner, use cigarette-alcohol, have other sexually transmitted diseases, have poor nutrition, have low immunity, and women who do not have regular screening tests They constitute the highest risk group for cervical cancer.
Since most patients do not have symptoms, it is very important to have screening tests, namely smear test and HPV test, in early detection of the disease. These can be confused with many things, even in women with symptoms, so diagnosis may be delayed. A definitive diagnosis is made with a doctor’s examination and tests. In advanced stage, women whose disease is detected late have more pronounced complaints. These include weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, foul-smelling discharge, bleeding, inability to urinate, urine and stool leakage from the vagina, back-waist-leg pain, swelling in the legs, bone pains. is in the form.
Smear (Pap Test) Test – What is HPV test? How is it done?
The smear test is a swab sample taken from the cervix during the gynecological examination. The test is quite simple and, if done regularly, ensures the early detection and treatment of cervical cancer. Today, the smear test is performed in 2 ways. In the classical method, the forehead swab sample is applied to the glass and fixed with a special spray. It is then sent to the laboratory. In the new method, the material taken is placed in a special liquid in a bottle. Then it is sent to the laboratory again and the microscopic examination is completed by going through certain stages. As a result, the cellular abnormality is evaluated whether there is a suspicious condition.
Every woman over the age of 21 who has an active sexual life should have a smear test at regular intervals. Singles do not need to be tested. The test interval varies depending on the previous test results of the patient and whether he is in the risk group. In healthy women who do not carry any risk, the test is performed every 3 years. The smear test continues in this way until the age of 65. In other words, the tests should not be delayed during the menopause period. After the age of 65, if there is no risk factor, the tests can be stopped under the control of a doctor.
The HPV test is a test that allows to investigate the presence of HPV types that cause cervical cancer. HPV test Just like the smear test, it is taken as a swab sample from the cervix during the gynecological examination. In case of the presence of any of the risky types, the procedure we call colposcopy is performed and the patient is followed more closely according to the result. If there is no risky HPV type, the screening interval can be extended up to 3-5 years in suitable patients.
WHAT IS THE CO-TEST?
Performing both HPV and smear test together is called ‘co-test’. The reliability of the screening test is higher when both are done together.
WHAT IS COLPOSCOPY?
Colposcopy is an instrument that provides a closer and clearer evaluation of the cervix. Colposcopy is performed for those who have abnormal smear test results and/or if risky types are detected in the HPV test. In the colposcopy procedure, the epithelium lining the cervix is enlarged and examined by using special dyes. Areas with abnormal staining, abnormal vascularization and color change are considered suspicious and biopsies are taken from these areas.
WHAT CAN BE DONE AGAINST ORAL CANCER?
Is it possible to prevent cervical cancer?
In short, of course it is possible. Since almost all cervical cancer is caused by HPV, protection from HPV will prevent cervical cancer. Since HPV is usually a sexually transmitted disease, monogamy (this applies to both men and women) is very important in terms of preventing transmission.
On the other hand, even if it is rare, sometimes even virgins can be infected with HPV. The best way to prevent this is to get the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccines provide protection against the most common and risky HPV types and reduce the risk of cervical cancer by 70-80%. In addition, it provides 90% protection against genital wart formation. The vaccine is recommended for those aged 9-26 years. In this age range, its protection is very high in people who have not been infected yet. Although the protection decreases after the age of 26, the vaccine can be administered until the age of 45 in suitable patients. It is administered as 2 doses in children under 14 years of age and 3 doses in older children.
Another method of prevention from cervical cancer is to have a regular screening test, namely smear and HPV test. Among female cancers, cervical cancer is the only cancer that can be diagnosed early and screened. Women who are screened regularly are less likely to develop advanced cancer. The most risky group in terms of cervical cancer is women who do not have a screening test. It is essential for every woman to have a screening test at regular intervals for early diagnosis. Women who have had the HPV vaccine should also continue to have a screening test, as the vaccine is not 100% protective.
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